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Articles published in 2021

Towards Raman-Based Screening of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Type B (B-ALL) Subtypes

Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5483;

P. Leszczenko1, A. Borek-Dorosz1,2, A. M. Nowakowska1, A. Adamczyk1, S. Kashyrskaya1, J. Jakubowska3, M. Ząbczyńska3, A. Pastorczak3, K.Ostrowska3, M. Baranska1,2, K. M. Marzec4*, K. Majzner1,2*

1Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland

2Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics (JCET), Jagiellonian University, Bobrzynskiego 14, 30‑348 Krakow, Poland

3Department of Pediatrics, Oncology and Hematology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

4Lukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Krakow, Poland

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population. B-cell precursor ALLs (BCP-ALLs)  are derived from the progenitors of B lymphocytes. Traditionally, risk factors stratifying therapy in ALL patients included age at diagnosis, initial leukocytosis, and the response to chemotherapy. Currently, treatment intensity is modified according to the presence of specific gene alterations in the leukemic genome. Raman imaging is a promising diagnostic tool, which enables the molecular characterization of cells and differentiation of subtypes of leukemia in clinical samples. This study aimed to characterize and distinguish cells isolated from the bone marrow of patients suffering from three subtypes of BCP-ALL, defined by gene rearrangements, i.e., BCR-ABL1 (Philadelphia-positive, t(9;22)), TEL-AML1 (t(12;21)) and TCF3-PBX1 (t(1;19)), using single-cell Raman imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Spectra collected from clinical samples were compared with single-cell spectra of B-cells collected from healthy donors, constituting the control group. We demonstrated that Raman spectra of normal B cells strongly differ from spectra of their malignant counterparts, especially in the intensity of bands, which can be assigned to nucleic acids. We also showed that the identification of leukemia subtypes could be automated with the use of chemometric methods. Results prove the clinical suitability of Raman imaging for the identification of spectroscopic markers characterizing leukemia cells.


This work was supported by the “Label-free and rapid optical imaging, detection and sorting of leukemia cells” project and is carried out within the Team-Net program (POIR.04.04.00-00-16ED/18-00) of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund. This research was partially supported by the Priority Research Area Digiworld under the program Excellence Initiative – Research University at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. The open-access publication of this article was funded by the Priority Research Area SciMat under the program “Excellence Initiative – Research University” at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow.


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